Life in Peru
Peru is considered a potentially rich and developable country. It is the third largest country of South America. Its main topographical regions are the Costa, the more than 2000 km long, narrow and sometimes extremely arid coastline; the Sierra, the broad highland region east of the Costa, which consists of rugged Andes mountain ranges, with Peru’s highest peak, the Huascaran rising 22,205 ft (6768 m) above sea level; the Montana, east of the Sierra, is a heavily forested lowland region with dense, tropical jungle, and the Selva, the rain forest region between the eastern foothills of the Andes, and the enormous rain forests of the Amazon basin.
Almost half of the population lives in the coastal region, the absolute core of the country, whereas in the deep valleys and on the lofty plateaus at an average height of 3000 m, mainly peasants live on subsistence farming. East of the mountain region lies the thinly populated jungle region, throughout the year characterized by humid, tropical heat with an average temperature of 26°C, and frequent rains. Only about 10% of the total population live here in river settlements and Indian reservations.
Source: World Factbook;
Metropolization and Marginalization in Lima
Metropolization is a process of urbanization which takes place in one single city, mostly the capital, so that it becomes the metropolis, controlling the entire country.
Around 1700, 85% of the population lived in the rural areas, and only 15% in the cities, with hardly any change in this ratio over the next 200 years, as at the end of the 19th century, the ratio was 80 to 20. The urbanization process in Lima only began in the middle of the 20th century, and proceeded at an enormous pace so that the urban population now amounts to 72%. The industrialization of the country is responsible for the magnetic pull Lima has for the entire country.
Spread of slums, and marginalization of the there living population.
The term ‘marginal’ may have a spatial dimension in that most of the hut dwellings are suburban settlements, but more important is the integration of social components: the inhabitants of these settlements occupy an only marginal position in the urban social system. Marginalization means forcing the poor into slum areas where they exist on the verge of starvation.
Reasons for Urbanization
Above all, urbanization is caused by an excess of births over deaths, and migration from rural to urban areas; the attraction of large cities is mainly due to better communication facilities, better job opportunities, and the availability of medical services.
"First of the 'natural' capital growth of the urban population is due to the birth surplus in comparison to the deaths. Then there are the urban net gains of migration between city and country. The weight of each factor varies by region. In developing countries - excluding China - is still the 'natural' growth of the urban population is the main factor ...
The attractiveness of cities is largely based on real and potential benefits and the spread of modern mass communication strengthened. The income opportunities in the cities of developing countries are often better, although with significant differences for the different layers. Addition there is a generally better access to medical services and educational opportunities. This so-called pull-effects are produced. Then there is the push effect of loss-making rural development ... "
Ingomar Hauchler e.g. (Ed.): Global Trends 2002nd Frankfurt am Main: Fischer paperback publishing house, 2001, p. 103